Oxidative stress indices and histopathological effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug naproxen in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug naproxen on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).
METHODS: Three months old zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to naproxen at concentrations of 0.001, 0.1 and 5 mg.L(-1). We focused on the changes in oxidative stress indices during and at the end of the experiment and histopathological examination of tissues after a two week long exposure period.
RESULTS: We found that a 3 day long exposure to naproxen causes mild oxidative stress and affects detoxification in zebrafish, which is demonstrated by the increased activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase at 0.001 and 0.1 mg.L(-1) of naproxen, respectively. After a 7 day long exposure to 0.1 and 5 mg.L(-1), more potent effects on enzymes occur. However, these effects are only short lasting. At the end of the experiment, the activities of the target enzymes recover back to homeostatic baseline levels. Except catalase, which is induced only after a two week long exposure to the environmental concentration of naproxen. Despite the fact that naproxen causes mild oxidative stress in zebrafish, exposure to this drug does not result in lipid peroxidation. Histopathological examination revealed obvious changes to the gills and liver even at exposure to the environmental concentration of naproxen.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the environmental concentration of naproxen can slightly influence both the antioxidant defense system and histopathology of non-target fish....