Significance of the plasma membrane for the nerve cell function, development and plasticity.

: Lipoid character of plasma membrane namely the presence of polyenic fatty acids enables to interact with membrane proteins and in certain extent also to modulate their function. During the development, molecules of membrane fatty acids become more and more complex, and the ratio of polyenic fatty acids/saturated fatty acids in the brain rises, while the concentration of monoenic fatty acids remained relatively stable. This phenomenon is apparent also in the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids OMEGA-3 in plasma of newborns which correlates with the birth weight. Plasma membrane reflects local specializations of nerve cells. Its composition varies in functionally specialized regions called domains. Specialized domains of nerve cells determine the function of dendrites, soma, axon, axon hillock ect. Premature weaning of laboratory rats results in structural changes and in the increase of excitability of neuronal circuits in hypothalamus, septum and hippocampus which indicate the possibility of membrane composition changes. In synapses, transport proteins of synaptic vesicles, act together with the specific proteins of the presynaptic membrane. Membrane proteins determine the release of neurotransmitter at different conditions of synaptic activity, and they can contribute to the recovery of neurotransmitter content after the repeated hyperactivity. In the model of experimental kindling, repeated seizures bring about decreases and distribution changes of synaptic vesicles.

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