: In this study we aimed to evaluate serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and growth hormone (GH) levels in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and to determine if these parameters have any relationship to the cyanosis, nutritional status and the left ventricular systolic function. This study is prospective-randomized study which conducted in 94 CHD patients (36 girls and 58 boys, aged between one 1-192 months, 19 cyanotic CHD and 75 acyanotic CHD) and age-sex matched 54 children (26 girls and 28 boys) with no CHD. In the study group, 37 out of the 94 CHD patients (39.4%) and 16 out of the 54 controls (29.6%) had malnutrition. The difference between the cyanotic and acyanotic patients in respect to malnutrition was significant (57.9% and 34.6%, p<0.05). Serum IGF-1 levels were lower (41.8+/-3.9 microg/L, 106.9+/-17.9 microg/L respectively, p<0.001) and GH levels were higher (6.43+/-0.9 ng/ml, 3.87+/-0.5 respectively, p<0.05) in CHD patient group than the controls. Serum IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in cyanotic CHD patients than the acyanotic patients (17.2+/-3.2 microg/L, 48.7.0+/-4.6 microg/L respectively, p<0.001) and serum IGF-1 levels were both lower in acyanotic and cyanotic CHD patients than the controls (p<0.001 for both). Serum IGF-1 and GH levels were similar between the well-nourished CHD patients and CHD patients with malnutrition (p>0.05). In total study group, the most effective factors on serum IGF-1 levels was presence of CHD (p<0.001), in CHD patients, the presence of cyanosis is the most effective factor on serum IGF-1 level, the presence of malnutrition is the most effective factor on serum IGFBP-3 levels (p<0.01). In the acyanotic, cyanotic, and the entire CHD patient groups, we find no correlations between the serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and left ventricular systolic function measurements. But serum GH levels were negatively correlated with diastolic left ventricular interseptum diameter, diastolic left ventricular mass and left ventricular end-diastolic volume measurements in CHD patients. In conclusion, we determined that the most important factor on serum IGF-1 levels is cyanosis. Reduced IGF1 levels and decreased left ventricular mass with an elevated GH levels in CHD patients and these findings are prominent in the cases with cyanosis and malnutrition. For this reason we believe that chronic hypoxia plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of malnutrition and also we believe that IGF-1 deficiency seen in CHD patients may be responsible in the etiology of the decrease in left ventricular mass independently from GH.