Rearrangements of NTRK1 oncogene in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) represents an example of tumour with high incidence of oncogenic sequences, such as RET/PTC and Trk. Both of them arise from the fusion of 3' terminal sequences of TK domain of RET or NTRK1 gene, respectively, with 5' terminal sequences of their activating genes. In case of NTRK1 oncogene, several rearrangement types are observed, characteristic for PTC: Trk (TMP3), Trk-T1, Trk-T2, Trk-T3 and Trk-2h, observed in human breast cancer cell line. Studies from different geographical regions, revealed significant population differences in the incidence of Trk rearrangements (0-50%), while within the same population, the frequency of Trk in spontaneous and radiation-associated PTCs is similar. The results of studies, focused on the correlation between tumour genotype and the histopathological type of tumour, involving cases of both RET/PTC and Trk rearrangements in PTC, are not unequivocal. In many studies, no correlation was observed between the presence of RET and/or NTRK1 rearrangement and such parameters, as patient's age at diagnosis, gender, histopathological type of tumour or clinical stage (TNM stage grouping), although the earliest clinical symptoms and the worst disease outcomes were observed for RET/NTRK1 rearrangement positive tumours. Differences in the rearrangement incidence between male and female patients were associated with the latency period of radiation-associated tumours, being significantly lower in women. In general, it is assumed that oncogenic Trk sequences are typical for the spontaneous type of PTC.

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