OBJECTIVE: This work is aiming at broadening knowledge about placenta and giving evidence that lead penetrates through transplacental barrier. We have intended to find further possible reasons of the rise of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and to suggest ways of preventing development of this syndrome.
METHODS: For revealing presence of lead in placenta and umbilical cord blood we used histochemical methods, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of element composition and infrared spectroscopy.
RESULTS: We are presenting new findings that emphasize importance of Hofbauer cells. These cells have high phagocyting activity and form filter regulating entering lead into umbilical cord blood and thus influence possibility of the ADHD rise. We found positivity on lipids in placenta. Importance of this finding consists in the fact that lead is lipophilic metal and tissue containing lipid is available path for the transport of lead. We explained why just striatum is affected with toxic action of lead in case of ADHD syndrome. We have also shown that more blood elements circulate in umbilical cord blood than in a common circulation.
CONCLUSIONS: High number of patients with the ADHD syndrome inspired us to suggest establishment of centers where these children would be registered. Staff of specialists consisting of psychologist, physician and physicist (responsible for application of methods of early diagnosis) will take care of the development of their health conditions and further treatment.