: The purpose of this brief review is to introduce the reader to the vast amount of published literature related to the free radical scavenging and antioxidative activity of melatonin. However, this review summarizes only a few of the many conditions in which melatonin has been found to be protective against oxidative/nitrosative damage. Melatonin ameliorates the extensive free radical-mediated damage that ensues following exposure to a wide variety of environmental insults. Concisely reviewed in this report are the protective effects of melatonin against toxic prescription drugs, neural toxins, herbicides and metals. The findings have clear implications for the utility of melatonin in toxicology.