OBJECTIVE: Maternal insulin sensitivity have strong correlation with fetal growth. The dysregulation of adiponectin and leptin is found in insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between ultrasound fetal biometry and the maternal plasma cytokines and insulin concentrations at the beginning of gestational diabetes treatment.
METHODS: 121 women with gestational diabetes diagnosed between 26th and 30th weeks, were included to the study. Plasma levels of adiponectin, leptin, insulin and glucose were quantified with the measurements and percentiles of the biparietal diameter, head circumference and abdominal circumference , estimated fetal weight and the actual birthweight.
RESULTS: Associations between both of the adipokines and fetal biometry measurements were not evident. There were also no differences in their serum concentrations between groups of women with and without accelerated fetal growth . Adiponectin negatively correlated with pre-pregnancy BMI (r=-0.366, p=0.01). Leptin positively correlated with pre - pregnancy BMI (r=0.42, p=0.002), fasting insulin (r=0.51, p=0.0006) and HOMA-IR (r=0.43, p=0.005). No association was found between adiponectin, leptin, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and neonatal birth weight or birth weight percentile.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study imply that adiponectin, leptin and insulin maternal plasma concentrations in the third trimester do not have influence on fetal growth in gestational diabetes.