Effects of oral contraceptives on the treatment for internal derangements in temporomandibular joints in women.

OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is the highest among women of reproductive age. Estrogens are the major contributor to the regulation of bone growth and development. They also influence peripheral and central mechanism of pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of conservative treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangements in regular cycling women with and without use of oral contraceptives (OCs).

MATERIAL & METHODS: The study included 229 women with TMJ disk displacement with and without reduction (DDwR and DDw/oR). The study group consisted of 191 normally cycling women and 38 women using combined OCs (COCs). The conservative TMD treatment was applied and its efficacy was rated during check-up visits.

RESULTS: The decreased odds of obtaining any or sufficient improvement during control visits were observed in women treated for DDwR and taking COCs for less than 3 years (p=0.01). There was a 2.7-fold higher risk for the failure of treatment in women taking COCs for less than 3 years during control visits in both diagnoses, DDwR or DDw/oR (p=0.082). There was investigated an increase in the risk for the lack of sufficient post-treatment improvement in diagnosed DDwR or DDw/oR in women with co-occurrence general osteoarticular lesions (p=0.07, p=0.04).

CONCLUSIONS: A worse TMJ internal derangements treatment efficacy was observed in women taking COCs for rather short time (less than 3 years) and in women with disorders in the osteoarticular system, what indicates modification of therapeutic procedures in that groups of patients.

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