Effects of maternal lipids on the fetal growth in gestational diabetes.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between ultrasound fetal biometry and lipids and glucose profiles at the beginning of gestational diabetes (GDM) treatment.

METHODS: In 98 women with GDM plasma glucose and lipid profile were measured between 27-32 weeks' of gestation. The association between the biochemical parameters and the measurements and percentiles of the biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL) and abdominal circumference (AC), estimated fetal weight (EFW) and the actual birthweight (BW) were analyzed.

RESULTS: There was no significant association between fetal and neonatal biometry measurements and maternal glucose concentrations. Highly significant positive correlation was found between triglicerydes and fetal biometry at the beginning of GDM treatment: AC, BPD, FL and EFW (p=0.007, p=0.018, p=0.018, p=0.013, respectively), as well as between total cholesterol and bi-parietal diameter (p=0.04). Associations between maternal plasma lipids and birthweight or birthweight percentile were not evident.

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that maternal lipids and carbohydrates metabolic disturbance are an important determinant for fetal growth in pregnancy before gestational diabetes is diagnosed.

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