Association of ACE polymorphisms with left ventricular hypertrophy.

: The angiotensin converting enzyme gene (ACE) is a candidate gene for an individual's genetic susceptibility to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). LVH has long been thought to be an end point of essential hypertension (EH), rather than a separate entity, though it is influenced by a unique set of hormonal, vascular and genetic factors. In this study, we attempted to determine whether two representative polymorphisms of the ACE gene, ACE I/D and 2350 G>A, known to be associated with EH and to influence plasma ACE levels most significantly, could implicate ACE as a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for LVH. We carried out a retrospective, case-control study of the two ACE polymorphisms amongst 180 nationals (50 LVH patients and 130 controls) from the United Arab Emirates--an ethnic group characterized by no alcohol intake and no cigarette smoking--for correlations with LVH. Clinical diagnosis of LVH was based on echocardiographic and ECG criteria. ACE I/D and 2350 G>A genotypes were determined by PCR and restriction digestion. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed an association between ACE polymorphisms and LVH. Haplotype analysis further supported this finding. ACE I/D and ACE 2350 G>A polymorphisms are in strong linkage disequilibrium and are associated with LVH, suggesting that ACE is likely to be a QTL for LVH.