: A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the association of the levels of plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone (ALDO) and atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) with the rates of hypertension prevalence in people living at 340 meters below sea level, the Jordan Valley (JV) and those residing at 620 meters above sea level, Irbid City. 1072 natives from the JV and 1402 natives from Irbid City were covered by a questionnaire to estimate hypertension prevalence in the JV and Irbid city (population age: 35-65 years). Male subjects were selected from the JV (24 hypertensives, 46+/-15 years old, and 93 normotensives, 33+/-13 years old) and from Irbid City (31 hypertensives, 47+/-12 years old, and 89 normotensives, 40+/-13 years old) to evaluate the levels of PRA, ALDO and ANH. Hypertension was less common in the JV than in Irbid City (9.9% vs. 13.6%). The levels of PRA in the hypertensive subjects compared to the normotensive subjects were lower in the JV (1.7+/-1.0 vs. 2.6+/-1.4 ng/ml/hr) but were similar in Irbid City (2.9+/-2.7 vs. 3.2+/-2.7). The levels of ALDO in the hypertensive subjects compared to the normotensive subjects were similar in the JV (119+/-58 vs. 139+/-66 pg/ml) but were higher in Irbid City (199+/-112 vs. 146+/-84). The levels of ANH in the hypertensive subjects compared to the normotensive subjects were lower in the JV (13.9+/-9.3 vs. 28.0+/-12.7 ng/ml) and were also lower in Irbid City (21.0+/-12.2 vs. 26.7+/-11.6).