: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1(VEGFR-1) in human multiple myeloma KM3 cells in vitro, effects of valproic acid (VPA), as a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on cell proliferation and apoptosis and the underlying molecular mechanism were investigated. The effects of VPA on the growth of KM3 cells were studied by MTT assay. The apoptosis rate was determined with flow cytometry. The mRNA level of VEGFR was determined by RT-PCR; and immunocytochemistry was used to detect the protein level of ac-H4 and VEGFR. VPA inhibited proliferation of KM3 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Treatment with VPA (4, 2, 1 and 0.5 mmol/L) for 48h, the apoptosis rates of KM3 cells were (13.27+/-3.54)%, (22.13+/-1.20)%, (24.41+/-2.23)% and(40.62+/-4.28)% respectively. The expression of VEGFR-1 in KM3 cells were decreased in VPA-treated group by the immunochemistry and RT-PCR, whereas the acetylated histone H4(ac-H4) accumulated. It suggested VPA could decrease the expression of VEGFR-1 in KM3 cells, and it might play an important role in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of multiple myeloma cell line KM3 cells. These results provide the framework for clinical trials.