: The aim of this study was to assess if differences in etiology and risk factors among 372 cases of bacterial meningitis acquired after surgery (PM) or in community (CBM) have impact on outcome of infected patients. Among 372 cases of bacterial meningitis within last 17 years from 10 major Slovak hospitals, 171 were PM and 201 CBM. Etiology, risk factors such as underlying disease, cancer, diabetes alcoholism, surgery, VLBW, ENT infections, trauma, sepsis were recorded and mortality, survival with sequellae, therapy failure were compared in both groups. Significant differences in etiology and risk factors between both groups were reported. Those after neurosurgery had more frequently Coagulase negative staphylococci (p<0.001), Enterobacteriaceae (p=0.01) and Acinetobacter baumannii (p=0.0008) isolated from CSF and vice versa Streptococcus pneumoniae (p<0.001), Neisseria meningitis (p<0.001) and Haemophillus influenza (p=0.0009) were more commonly isolated from CSF in CBM. Neurosurgery (p<0.001), sepsis (p=0.006), VLBW neonates (p=0.00002) and cancer (p=0.0007) were more common in PM and alcohol abuse (p<0.001) as well as otitis/sinusitis (p<0.001) and Roma ethnic group (p=0.001) in CAM. Initial treatment success was significantly more frequently observed among CAM (p<0.001) but cure after modification was more common in PM (p=0.002). Therefore outcome in both groups was similar (14.6% vs. 12.4%, p=NS).