X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: phenotype-genotype correlation in hemizygous males and heterozygous females with ABCD1 mutations.

  Vol. 42 (5) 2021 Neuro endocrinology letters Journal Article   2021; 42(5): 359-367 PubMed PMID:  34506099    Citation

OBJECTIVES: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) causes cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD), myelopathy and/or adrenal insufficiency in males, and myelopathy/peripheral neuropathy in females. These distinct phenotypes are scarcely linked to a specific mutations. The objective herein was to find a link between the phenotype with the genotype mutation, serum very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), and the diet with Lorenzo´s and GTO oils in hemizygous males and heterozygous females. METHODS: A retrospective study design with follow-up of 45 hemizygous males and 50 heterozygous females carrying mutations in ABCD1 from 35 unrelated families with X-ALD. Mutation analysis was performed by Sanger sequencing of PCR and/or RT-PCR and the severity of missense mutations was evaluated using GERP++ score and CADD score. RESULTS: Twenty-five described and eight novel ABCD1 mutations were identified. Fifteen males and 23 females had severe mutations while 30 males and 27 females had less detrimental ones. cALD developed in 25 males (56%) including nine boys with severe mutations, 10 boys with less detrimental mutations and 6 adults with adrenomyelopathy. Myelopathy and/or adrenal insufficiency developed in 14 males (31%), six were asymptomatic. Adrenal insufficiency developed in two of five boys treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Myelopathy/peripheral neuropathy developed in 26% of females. No correlation was found between the disease severity and the genotype, GERP++ and CADD scores, presence/absence of aberrant ALDP protein or X-inactivation. VLCFA were higher in males than heterozygous females and decreased during Lorenzo´s and GTO oils diet without a clear clinical impact on the disease. CONCLUSION: The prognosis was unfavourable in most males and significant part of females. Therapy with early HSCT is effective. Thus, the need for early diagnosis with the neonatal screening is crucial.