Thyroid peroxidase antibodies may induce demyelination and oculomotor neuromyotonia in the absence of thyroid eye disease.

  Vol. 43 (2) 2022 Neuro endocrinology letters Journal Article   2022; 43(2): 65-67 PubMed PMID:  35786818    Citation

INTRODUCTION: The first report of oculomotor neuromyotonia (ONM) in a child induced by thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) in the absence of thyroid eye disease (TED). CASE: 14-year-old girl complained of left eye (LE) paroxysmal upper lid fluttering and ptosis precipitated by hyperventilation or sustained left gaze. On sustained left gaze, right eye (RE) upper lid retraction and LE upper lid fluttering with ptosis ensued. RESULTS: Diagnostic work-up revealed markedly elevated anti-TPO (> 600 IU/ml) and no TED. Brain MRI was normal with no signs of tortuous vessels presenting focal demyelination. We hypothesized that anti-TPO directly induced demyelination and set the ground for right ONM with ephaptic transmission between neurons supplying right medial rectus and levator muscle. CONCLUSIONS: Plethora of theories try to decode the ONM. TED associated ONM is not reported in children but is the second most common cause of ONM in adults, advocated to be of compressive origin. Conversely, this case holds true for cross talk hypothesis. All extraocular muscles must be tested to determine the triggering one. ONM should not be overlooked due to its positive response to carbamazepine.

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