The influence of smoking on plasma folate and lipoproteins in Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment and depression.

: The risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with lifestyle factors, especially cigarette smoking. In this study we investigated the influence of smoking on the serum levels of folic acid, LDL and HDL in AD patients, patients with minimal cognitive impairment (MCI) and patients with major depression. We investigated a total of n = 374 patients in the diagnostic categories:, AD: n = 272, MCI: n = 60, Major depression: n = 42. We found significantly lower HDL levels in smokers and previous smokers in comparison to non-smokers, p<0,05. The LDL: HDL ratio in smokers was significant higher (+20%) compared to previous smokers and non-smokers, p < 0.05. The mean levels of folic acid were statistically significant (p<0.05) lower (-24%) in smokers compared to non-smokers. Patients with MCI and Alzheimer;s disease (and also major depression) who are "smokers" show serum levels of HDL and folic acid that are known to be strong risk factors for vascular damage and increased risk for vascular brain damage and impaired cognitive function. Therefore cessation of smoking, substitution with folate or statin therapy of smoking patients with MCI or AD might be beneficial to slow down further cognitive decline.

 Full text PDF