OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of short-term spinal cord electrical stimulation (stSCS) on postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and its effect on sleep quality in patients in Guangxi, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 160 patients with acute PHN patients were divided into a control group and an experimental group according to the random number table method, 80 cases each. The experimental group was implanted with percutaneous epidural electrodes and given short-term spinal cord electrical stimulation treatment, while the control group was treated with nerve block therapy to compare the efficacy and sleep quality of the two groups of patients in different periods. Pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to evaluate the analgesic effect and sleep quality, respectively. RESULTS: The patients in the experimental group had significantly lower visual analog scale (VAS) scores and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores at 1, 2, 3 d, 1 week, and 1 and 3 months after treatment than those in the control group [after treatment 3 months: (0.86±0.31) points to (2.97±0.55) points, (5.4±1.16) score to (7.46±1.27) score], the difference was statistically significant (both P<0.05), and VAS and PSQI scores of the two groups showed a significant downward trend with the increase of treatment time. CONCLUSION: The clinical effect of short-term spinal cord electrical stimulation on PHN is good, and it can play a rapid and effective relief effect on pain in patients. At the same time, it will effectively improve patient's sleep quality, with high safety.