OBJECTIVE: Uterine sarcomas are rare mesodermal malignant tumors with an incidence between 0.5 and 3.3 cases per 100,000 females per year. Most sarcomas are aggressive tumors leading to poor overall survival rates and only limited therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for uterine sarcomas and carcinosarcomas, and to identify the factors influencing the survival rate.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study with twenty-nine patients who were diagnosed with uterine sarcoma and thirty-four patients with carcinosarcoma between the years 1990 and 2006 at the Oncogynecologic center at the University Hospital in Martin, Slovakia. We focused on the analysis of the risk factors and survival rate of early stages I and II.
RESULTS: We confirmed highly statistically significant values for the inverse correlation between survival and tumor size, positive lymph nodes, high mitotic activity, vascular invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, elevated CA-125, smoking and BMI in sarcoma and carcinosarcoma group (p<0.001 for all factors). The use of lymphadenectomy had no effect on survival of all patients.
DISCUSSION: Sarcomas and carcinosarcomas are aggressive tumors leading to poor overall survival rates and only limited therapeutic options. As there is no consensus on specific treatment, an individual approach based on evaluation of known risk factors is essential.