Selective vulnerability of the hippocampus to the cytotoxic edema; magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy studies in the rats.

  Vol. 41 (7-8) 2021 Neuro endocrinology letters Journal Article   2021; 41(7-8): 392-400 PubMed PMID:  33754596    Citation

OBJECTIVES: Changes in the hippocampus induced by water intoxication were studied using fluorescence microscopy (FM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: In three animals (rats), intracellular/extracellular distribution of Evans blue (EB) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of both hemispheres was revealed by injection of EB into the internal carotid artery (ICA) in hyperhydrated rats (water intoxication, WI). A total of 8 experimental rats were used for the MRI study. The animals were scanned before WI, then the experimental brain edema was induced by WI and MR scanning was performed at day 1 and day 8 after WI. Besides standard T2-weighted imaging an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and transverse relaxation time (T2) were evaluated. RESULTS: Hyperhydration brought about the largest intracellular deposits of EB in CA3 hippocampal region, followed by the cerebral cortex and CA1 hippocampal region with the lowest amount of intracellular EB in the dentate gyrus. A higher apparent diffusion coefficient (corresponding to a vasogenic edema) was found the first day after hyperhydration in the cortex and in the CA1 and CA3 regions with no changes in dentate gyrus. CONCLUSION: Both FM and MRI confirmed a selectively higher vulnerability to hyperhydration and hyponatremia (achieved by water intoxication) of the hippocampal cells compared to dentate gyrus cells.

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