Role of astrocytes in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and their participation in regulation of cerebral circulation.

: There is about 30% higher risk of the myocardial infarction in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) than in people without MS. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease development positively correlates with levels of serum markers of an endothelial dysfunction, and may give rise to a global cerebral hypoperfusion. It appears that these complications precede progressive loss of axons, which mechanisms are complex and should be linked to a loss of β2 adrenergic receptors on astrocytes of demyelinating lesions. Consequence of this deficiency, the cause of which is not known yet, is a decline in energy metabolism of axons. Moreover, the loss of these receptors is linked to a reduced redistribution of potassium ions by astrocytes, glutamate excitotoxicity and increase of calcium ion concentration in the axon with subsequent activation of necrotic processes. In addition to immunological aspects we should take into account also parameters of the functional state of endothelium when appropriate targeted therapy for patient is considered.

 Full text PDF