Rare clinical manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

  Vol. 43 (4) 2022 Neuro endocrinology letters Case Reports   2022; 43(4): 199-207 PubMed PMID:  36528881    Citation

OBJECTIVE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare disorder characterized by tumors in various endocrine glands. It is caused by a mutation in the MEN1 gene. This gene encodes menin, a protein that regulates cell proliferation. The clinical manifestation of the syndrome most commonly involves hyperparathyroidism and pancreatic, pituitary gland, and adrenocortical adenomas. Although the first symptoms of the disease usually occur in patients under the age of 20, the data on MEN1 in children is scarce. Here, we report a case study of a familial MEN1 syndrome with a central nervous system ganglioglioma, a manifestation that has not been characterized so far. CASE REPORT: The diagnosis of a 17-year-old boy with hypoglycemia of unknown origin revealed the presence of a pancreatic tumor. As kidney stone disease and acute pancreatitis were reported in his father, and his asymptomatic sister was initially diagnosed with a pancreatic tumor, a familial MEN1 syndrome was suspected. Indeed, a pathogenic mutation within the MEN1 gene was detected. Further diagnosis revealed primary hyperparathyroidism in both children and their father, which is typical of MEN1. The girl also presented with hydrocephalus caused by ganglioglioma of the central nervous system. Surgical treatment was successfully conducted in both children. CONCLUSIONS: The reported family case provides evidence of the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties related to the MEN1 syndrome. In children, the benefits of an early surgery should be considered in relation to the risks of possible surgical complications and consequences of a loss of endocrine gland function.

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