: Breastfeeding is a complex task for many mothers but may be particularly difficult when coping with the birth of a preterm. In the following article the task of breastfeeding a preterm neonate is identified as one facet of the parenting process and the many problems encountered when breastfeeding are highlighted. Research is presented which investigates whether breastfeeding a preterm neonate mediates mothers' Perceived Parenting Self-Efficacy (PMP S-E) whilst in hospital. The findings from this study suggest that not only do mothers who are breastfeeding their preterm neonate have a lower self-efficacy than non-breastfeeding mothers, but they also require further support in all aspects of parenting. The authors discuss these results in terms of self-efficacy theory and suggest that they may have implications for Neonatal Health Psychologists practice particularly with regard to the facilitation of breastfeeding within the neonatal unit.