BACKGROUND: Depressive disorder (DD) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It was suggested, that metabolic syndrome (MetS), cluster of metabolic and hormonal changes, such as insulin resistence (IR), abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension and elevated fasting glycaemia, could stand behind the connection. Recent findings have shown, that adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin might play a role in both depression and MetS.
AIM: The aim of this pilot study was to observe the plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and indices of IR in women with depressive disorder.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The plasma leptin, adiponectin, parameters of lipid and glucose homeostasis and indices of IR were investigated in a group of 38 women with DD. The results were compared with those of 38 healthy women of the control group, matched for age.
RESULTS: Depressive women differed significantly from the controls in higher concentrations of plasma leptin (p <0.05), insulin (p <0.01), C-peptide (p <0.01), value of HOMA-IR (p <0.01), and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (p <0.05).The QUICKI index of insulin sensitivity was lower (p <0.01). HAM-D score of DD cases correlated negatively with adiponectin (r = - 0.3505; p < 0.05), independently of HOMA-IR. We have not found in DD group any differences between the drug free patients and those treated either with escitaloprame alone or in the combination with mirtazapine.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the pilot study presented support the hypothesis that at least part of DD cases has increased leptin serum levels and certain features of MetS. It could be the factor connecting depression with an increased risk of either DM2 or CVD.