OBJECTIVES: Smoking cessation is an essential part of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. At the Center for Tobacco-Dependent (CTD), clients are screened to identify and reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. In our study we have focused on the role of the CTD in reducing global CV risk.
METHODS: 1,334 CTD patients aged 25-64 years (52.2% men, mean age 44±12 years, Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence 6±2) were included in a retrospective cross-sectional survey. Medical history, blood samples and physical examination were analysed. Blood pressure, weight and exhaled CO were measured at each visit (12-months-follow-up). Patients' CV risk was scored. CO-verified abstinence according to CV risk and prevalence of detected CV risk factors were examined.
RESULTS: Among patients who had attended at least their first visit and a visit after one year, 37.9% (506/1,334) had stopped smoking. Among patients with a SCORE of <5%, the success rate was 44.3% (254/574) and 41.2% for patients at high CV risk (105/255, p=0.41). There was a trend towards a lower success rate among patients with CVD, but this difference was not significant. The smoking cessation rate among low and high CV risk patients at the baseline visit was identical (46.2%, resp. 47.3%, p=0.81). 3.1% (42/1,334) of patients were referred to a specialist for hypertension. 62.5% (223/357), without a prior history, were found to have dyslipidemia.
CONCLUSIONS: High CV risk patients have the same chance to stop smoking as low risk patients....
OBJECTIVES: Statins significantly reduce CV morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, one of the side effects of statins is myopathy, for which statins cannot be administered in sufficient doses or administered at all. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with statin myopathy.
DESIGN/SETTING: Twenty eight patients aged 60.6±10.7 years were monitored (18 women and 10 men) and treated with different types and doses of statin. Muscle weakness and pain was monitored using a scale of one to ten, on which patients expressed the degree of their inconvenience. Examination of muscle problems was performed prior to administration of CQ10 and after 3 and 6 months of dosing. Statistical analysis was performed using Friedman test, Annova and Students t-test.
RESULTS: Pain decreased on average by 53.8% (p<0.0001), muscle weakness by 44.4% (p<0.0001). The CQ10 levels were increased by more than 194% (from 0,903 μg/ml to 2.66 μg/ml; p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION: After a six-month administration of coenzyme Q10, muscle pain and sensitivity statistically significantly decreased....
BACKGROUND: Our study focused on the ability of epicardial adipocytes to produce bioactive substances and compare the extent of this production with the production of adipokines in visceral adipocytes, which are well known endocrine cells capable of contributing to the development of atherosclerosis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The gene expression of human cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, RANTES and MCP-1) and adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) was measured in primary cell lines of epicardial and visceral adipocytes, both in undifferentiated and mature statuses, after a 21-day-long differentiation protocol. Each condition was assayed in triplicate in two independent primary cell lines obtained from two different donors.
RESULTS: The epicardial preadipocytes showed an increased expression of IL-8 (3.25-fold, p<0.05) compared with visceral preadipocytes. The expression of the atheroprotective adiponectin in epicardial preadipocytes was minimal compared with the expression in visceral preadipocytes (p<0.0001). Moreover, the expression of the genes of interest was dependent on the differentiation degree and cell origin. We observed an altered expression of the proinflammatory genes IL-8 (0.016-fold, p<0.01) and MCP-1 (0.19-fold, p<0.05) in differentiated epicardial adipocytes compared with undifferentiated adipocytes. The epicardial adipocytes showed an increased expression of IL-6 (8.13-fold, p<0.05) compared with the visceral adipocytes.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that epicardial adipocytes substantially differ from visceral adipocytes and might locally contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis....
BACKGROUND: Atherogenic dyslipidemia contributes substantially to the residual cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of therapeutic doses of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the three major lipid abnormalities of atherogenic dyslipidemia, i.e. hypertriacylglycerolemia, low HDL cholesterol, and increased levels of small dense LDL particles, as well as on some new risk factors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 hypertriacylglycerolemic patients were included in the study. Group S consisted of 36 patients who were already treated with statins, Group N of 24 patients not yet treated. Each patient was examined after six weeks on placebo and six weeks of treatment with n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl esters, 3.0 g/d).
RESULTS: Treatment with n-3 PUFA caused a decrease in plasma triacylglycerols (28%, p<0.001), and VLDL (-27%, p<0.001), an increase in HDL-C (+4%, p<0.01), and a decrease in sdLDL cholesterol (-16%, p<0.05). These changes were accompanied by a decrease in microalbuminuria (-30%, p<0.05), as well as in several parameters of oxidative stress. Analysis of the fatty acids composition of plasma phospholipids showed a significant increase in all n-3 PUFAs examined, accompanied by a decrease in n-6 PUFAs, as well as in monounsaturated acids. No significant differences in the effects of n-3 PUFA were found between the Groups S and N.
CONCLUSION: Our results support the opinion that hypertriacylglycerolemic patients benefit from the treatment with n-3 PUFA which improves several important metabolic factors of cardiovascular risk....
OBJECTIVES: The body mass index (BMI) has been the most commonly applied clinical measure to characterise body composition in individuals. However, the BMI has been criticised as being an inaccurate measure of body fatness. Recently, a new index reflecting body composition, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed. The BAI was calculated using the equation BAI=((hip circumference)/ ((height)1.5) - 18).
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare estimates of body fat content, i.e., body adiposity index (BAI), BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist and hip circumferences, with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat (PBF).
RESULTS: To select an optimal surrogate for adiposity, we examined the correlation between body adiposity percentage as measured by BIA and several variables, including BAI, BMI and WHR. Correlations ranged from a high of 0.78 for BMI, 0.67 for BAI and 0.66 for waist circumference to a low value of 0.39 for the WHR index. The correlation between PBF and BAI (R=0.67, R2=0.45, p<0.001) and the correlation between PBF and BMI (R=0.78, R2=0.60, p<0.001) were of similar magnitude.
CONCLUSION: Based on our results and those of other studies, we can say that the BAI index is not a universally valid index that could be used in the place of the BMI index in a Caucasian population; indeed, it would not accurately reflect body fat mass and thus could lead to an increased risk of obesity. Further, WHR index is not a suitable for an estimation of body fat....
OBJECTIVES: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], together with other serum lipoproteins have an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease. The objective of the study was to assess the association between plasma levels of Lp(a) with the extent of angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 518 consecutive patients (66 % males) underwent coronary angiography in connection with lipids and lipoprotein determinations between 1st January and 31st May 2010. Most of the patients were treated with lipid lowering therapy (77 % statins). Modified angiographic Gensini Score (GS) and adjusted angiographic score (AS) were used to reflect the extent of coronary atherosclerosis.
RESULTS: Both GS and AS angiographic scores correlated significantly with age, male gender, statin therapy and inversely with left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.05-0.01 for all). The results showed significant inverse correlation of HDL cholesterol levels with GS and AS (r=-0.16, p<0.001), and apolipoprotein A levels with GS and AS (r=-0.20, p<0.0001) and a positive correlation of Lp(a) levels with angiographic score (r=0.13, p<0.01) and with adjusted angiographic score (r=0.16, p<0.01). Regression analysis showed only Lp(a) concentration was an independent lipid factor that correlated with the extent of CAD.
CONCLUSION: Only Lp(a) levels correlated with the extent of coronary artery disease as assessed with coronary angiography in patients treated with lipid lowering therapy....
OBJECTIVE: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is associated with decreased exercise tolerance and it is subjectively reported as angina pectoris or dyspnea. Inflammation and pro- inflammatory cytokines are related to progression of IHD, but their level is seldom analyzed in association with self reported exercise tolerance.
METHODS: Women aged 35-75 years with stable IHD from Homocysteine Slovakia study (N=175) were analyzed for monocyte chemoatractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF β1), Mannan binding lectin (MBL), heat shock proteins 60 (HSP60), carbonyl protein (CP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in relation to exercise induced dyspnea or angina pectoris (AP) (≤200 m).
RESULTS: Patients with dyspnea had higher HSP60 (77.3±107.2 vs 43.7±48.9 ng/ml; p=0.014) and IL-6 (2.9±1.3 vs 1.9±0.6 pg/ml; p=0.04) levels. IL-6 and HSP60 demonstrated direct correlation with dyspnea (rho=0.39; p=0.02 resp. rho=0.22; p=0.01). AP≤200 m patients showed only decreased protein carbonyl a marker of protein oxidation and increased oxidative stress (CP 61.7±27.3 vs. 72.1±23.1 pg/ml; p=0.001). CP indirectly correlates with AP≤200 m (rho=-0.25; p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: We have found associations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers with dyspnea or angina pectoris, but the relationship was not consistent in our patients with stable ischemic heart disease....