Oxidative stress parameters in early developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after subchronic exposure to terbuthylazine and metribuzin.
OBJECTIVES: This work assessed the subchronic effects of the triazine compounds terbuthylazine and metribuzin on embryo-larval stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using biotransformation enzyme and selected oxidative stress parameters.
DESIGN: Early developmental stages of fish, from embryo to larvae, were exposed to terbuthylazine at concentrations of 0.9, 160, 520, and 820 μg/L, and metribuzin at concentrations of 0.9, 4, 14, and 32 mg/L for 30 days and compared to the non-treated control group. For assessment of free radical defence the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured; the lipid peroxidation (TBARS) level was determined as a marker of free radical damage.
RESULTS: Terbuthylazine had no significant effect (p>0.05) at any tested concentrations on GST activity. Terbuthylazine caused an increase (p<0.05) in GR activity at the concentration of 520 μg/L. We found a non-significant (p>0.05) effect of terbuthylazine exposure on TBARS level. In metribuzin treated groups, the activity of GST was increased (p<0.05) in all experimental groups, with the highest at the concentration of 32 mg/L. GR activity was increased in the 0.9, 4, and 14 mg/L groups and the TBARS levels were the highest in the 0.9 mg/L group.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that terbuthylazine and metribuzin induced oxidative stress in embryo-larval stages of common carp. Increased activities of biotransformation enzymes or antioxidant defence enzymes were markers of free radical attack. There was low lipid peroxidation in early developed fish after triazine exposure....