OBJECTIVES: Ketoprofen is a common human medicine from a class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which is provably detected in surface waters in concentrations ordinarily in μg.L-1. The aim of this study was to compare the acute toxicity of ketoprofen to embryonic and juvenile stages of aquarium fish - zebrafish (Danio rerio).
METHODS: Tests were performed according to the methods of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) No. 203 (Fish, acute toxicity test) and OECD No. 212 (Fish, short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages).
RESULTS: The results showed (mean ± SD) LC50 value of ketoprofen to be 632.30 ± 10.10 mg.L-1 in juvenile zebrafish and 6.44 ± 2.22 mg.L-1 in embryonic stages of zebrafish. The results revealed statistically significantly higher sensitivity (p<0.01) of the embryonic stages of zebrafish to ketoprofen compared to its juveniles. The susceptibility of embryos depends on many factors, especially yet improperly developed enzymatic system in embryos, different ways of the absorption of the substance into the organism or differences in metabolism pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: The acute toxicity of ketoprofen for juvenile stages of zebrafish is low, but the substance seems to be toxic for embryonic stages....