Relationship between lipid peroxidation or carcinoembryonic antigen and risk factors for non-communicable diseases in women at midlife and beyond.
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute leading cause of morbidity, disability and premature mortality. Oxidative processes are involved in the pathogenesis of NCDs.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between lipid peroxidation (LPO), an index of oxidative damage to membrane lipids, or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a tumor marker, and potential risk factors for NCDs in women at midlife and beyond.
METHODS: Data on lifestyle, such as dietary habits, smoking, physical activity, etc. and medical history, were assessed by a questionnaire in 323 female outpatients of the Regional Centre of Menopause and Osteoporosis - Outpatient Department of Endocrinology, Lodz (Poland), at midlife and beyond. Blood serum LPO and CEA levels, as well as anthropometric measurements were evaluated.
RESULTS: Positive correlations between LPO level and body mass or body mass index or hip circumference were found. LPO level was increased in women who did not declare regular menstrual cycles. CEA level was increased in women who smoked (and positively correlated with duration of smoking), who consumed pickled food every day and over-consumed animal fats, who had not breastfed in the past, as well as in women with malignancy in anamnesis. Logistic regression analysis has revealed that LPO constitutes the independent positive determinant, whereas CEA constitutes the independent negative determinant, of obesity. Moreover, CEA was independently associated with malignancy in anamnesis, cigarette smoking and animal fat over-consumption.
CONCLUSION: Both LPO and CEA are independently associated with certain modifiable risk factors for NCDs....