Heterotopy of thyroid tissue--a modified therapeutical approach.

OBJECTIVES: The authors describe the classification of heterotopic thyroid tissue. A survey of more than 600 literature cases is provided. Different therapy approaches for these anomalies are discussed. Data from seven subsequent cases have been added to the existing literature data. The authors present an alternative approach to the therapy of heterotopic thyroid tissue.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of seven patients treated for a heterotopy of the thyroid tissue as the Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery of First Medical school of the Charles University of Prague since 1.1.1991 to 1.1.2001 have been analyzed.

RESULTS: The first group: No surgery. This approach was used for children. In these patients the heterotopic thyroid tissue is the only thyroid tissue they have, but its function is not damaged and there are no mechanical symptoms (no airway obstruction and dysphagia). TSH substitution-suppression therapy is necessary for this group. Cooperation and follow up by the endocrinology, otolaryngology and pediatric departments is necessary. At a later age these patients can be treated as in the second group. The second group: Surgery. All patients in this group had heterotopic thyroid tissue. The total removal of thyroid tissue has been preferred. Carcinomatous change or the development of mechanical syndrome, dysphagia or airway obstruction is possible. Total removal is the best surgical approach. Various surgical methods are described in the literature (CO2 laser, intraoral, mandibulotomy, middle hyotomy etc.). These patients are treated as after total thyroidectomy and substitution therapy with synthetic thyroid hormones is necessary. The authors describe and add seven cases to the literature data. The authors describe radical removal of aberrant and accessory tissue [corrected].

 Full text PDF