: Puberty in mammals is defined as the development of fertility, which involves the maturation of secondary sex characteristics and reproductive organs. This phenomenon is controlled by the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) axis. However, the timing of puberty differs greatly among individuals, and it is thought that a combination of genetic and environmental factors governs its onset. Advances in genetic analysis has allowed the identification of many more gene loci involved in regulating puberty. Understanding the genetics regulating the mammalian reproductive cycle can open novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of human infertility. This review aims to explore the genes currently thought to regulate pubertal onset, in particular the KISS-1, and TAC-3 genes. Moreover, this review aims to provide insight into the emerging roles of the genes which usually regulate nutritional status including the FGF21 gene and how they may impact pubertal onset.