Evaluation of the amoxicillin concentrations in amniotic fluid, placenta, umbilical cord blood and maternal serum two hours after oral administration.

  Vol. 38 (7) 2017 Neuro endocrinology letters Journal Article   2017; 38(7): 502-508 PubMed PMID:  29369602    Citation

OBJECTIVES: Amoxicillin is a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. Due to its low toxicity, it is commonly used in obstetrics. The objective of this study was to assess amoxicillin concentrations in amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, placenta and maternal serum two hours following oral administration among pregnant women at term and to assess obstetric and non-obstetric factors that might affect amoxicillin's penetration of these tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 full-term pregnant women who qualified for elective Caesarean delivery were included in the study. Amoxicillin at a dose of 500 mg was administered prior to surgery. Amoxicillin levels were determined by diffusion microbial assay. RESULTS: The maternal serum, placental, umbilical blood and amniotic fluid levels of amoxicillin two hours after oral administration were 2.18±1.30 µg/g, 1.00±0.71 µg/g, 1.00±0.73 µg/g, and 0.67±0.59 µg/g, respectively (Table 2). Maternal serum levels of amoxicillin were significantly higher compared to other tissues (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: If the target tissues for the use of antibiotic drugs in pregnant patients are the fetus and/or the placenta, the drug should be administered in a higher-than-standard dose than that used to treat infections in non-pregnant patients. Considering that there is a maximum absorbable dose following oral administration, intravenous administration should be considered to prevent failure of antibiotic treatment. A higher dose of amoxicillin should be considered in obese mothers.

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