Effects of the exposure of fish to triazine herbicides.

  Vol. 35 (Suppl 2) 2014 Neuro endocrinology letters Journal Article   2014; 35(Suppl 2): 3-25 PubMed PMID:  25638362    Citation  Keywords:  Animals, Fishes, Herbicides:toxicity, Triazines:toxicity, Water Pollutants, Chemical:toxicity,.   

: Triazines are an important group of herbicides, which have been used extensively or selectively both in agricultural and non-agricultural areas worldwide for more than fifty years to control broadleaf and some grassy weeds. As a consequence of their massive application, they have become and remain significant environmental pollutants, especially in aquatic ecosystems. Fish are an integral part of the aquatic environment and are, therefore, suitable models for the study of the behavioral, biological, and biochemical effects of triazine exposure. We have summarized and evaluated the effects of triazine herbicides on fish in order to provide an overview of current information on triazines. The overall effects of triazine herbicide exposure on the physiology of fish were evaluated by considering a variety of parameters in a number of reports. Haematological and biochemical profiles of blood provide important information about the internal environment of the organism and the general physiology and health status of triazine exposed fish. According to studies using biotransformation and bioaccumulation indices to estimate the effects of triazines on fish, changes in fish metabolism reflect the pollution of the environment by these herbicides. The responses of antioxidant defence systems in fish to triazine exposure could be an adaptive mechanism to protect the fish from triazine-induced oxidative stress. Acute exposure to triazines affects reproduction or reproductive development in fish; however, some triazines did not affect fish behavior during long-term exposure to low concentrations. Nevertheless, an impact on the overall behavioral response of fish cannot be excluded.

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