Cerebral salt wasting in pediatric critical care; not just a neurosurgical disorder anymore.

  Vol. 36 (6) 2015 Neuro endocrinology letters Journal Article   2015; 36(6): 578-582 PubMed PMID:  26812288    Citation

OBJECTIVE: Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) is a hypovolemic hyponatremia caused by natriuresis and diuresis, of which the exact pathogenesis is unknown. Although CSWS has been more commonly described to be associated with neurosurgical disorders, increasing numbers of patients are diagnosed and new etiological factors are being identified as the awareness of it increases.

METHODS: The files of the patients who had been hospitalized and treated with the diagnosis of CSWS at the pediatric critical care unit during the last three years were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS: Totally 9 patients had been treated with the diagnosis of CSWS. The causes of CSWS were identified as tuberculosis meningitis in two patients, status epilepticus in two patients, ketamine infusion in one patient, medulloblastoma in one patient, sepsis in one patient, brain oedema following child abuse in one patient, and cerebral infarct in one patient. All of the patients had received isotonic saline and hypertonic saline while 77.7% of them had received fludrocortisone. The mean time to correction of hyponatremia was 20.37±14.73 days. One patient had died.

CONCLUSION: Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is increasingly described in the etiology of hyponatremia that is commonly seen in children hospitalized especially at critical care units. Serum sodium, urinary sodium and polyuria should be primarily considered in the diagnosis, and supportive laboratory tests such as uric acid and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) should not be stipulated. At hospitals providing inpatient care services, clinical and laboratory characteristics of CSWS should be known in detail especially at pediatric critical care units.

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