: To date, the human G-protein beta 3 subunit (GNB3) gene and some of its variants represent some of the best examples of genetic influences that are involved in the determination of hypertension and obesity, which make it a sensible candidate gene for type 2 diabetes. To assess the influence of GNB3 in type II diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we carried out a retrospective, case-control study of variant GNB3 825C>T for putative correlations with NIDDM amongst nationals from the United Arab Emirates (Emirati) - an ethnic group characterized by no alcohol intake and no cigarette smoking. We investigated a sample population of 510 Emirati (257 men, 253 women) comprising two groups - 254 controls and 256 patients with clinical diagnoses of type 2 diabetes (cases). The GNB3 C825T dimorphism showed an association with NIDDM Chi2 =22.5, 2 df, P<0.001). Further analysis revealed that the GNB3 T/T 825 genotype was positively associated with NIDDM (Yates corrected Chi2=20.6, 2 df, P<0.001; odds ratio of 2.44 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.64 - 3.63) compared to pooled CC/CT genotypes. Our data shows that GNB3 T825 allele may be involved in the pathogenesis of DM through a pathway that is different from the one implicated in obesity.