: The aim of this review is to present the summarisation of the knowledge about biochemical and clinical changes that occur under the influence of asphyxia as well as about the treatment. Results of experimental works in animal models bring us the explanation about many postasphyxiated changes and help us to understand the pathophysiological changes and consequences of asphyxia. The authors present the most prominent consequences of neonatal asphyxia in clinical and experimental conditions. Asphyxia significantly contributes to neonatal morbidity and mortality and determines the prognosis of future development. New insights into the pathophysiology of birth asphyxia provide the opportunity how to prevent permanent damage by the activation of the fundamental molecular processes. Care of newborn asphyxia requires teamwork. Prognosis of the asphyxiated newborn is still dependent on developmental stage (gestational age), the length and intensity of asphyxia, on the level of medical care.