BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by deep alterations of hormone secretion. In majority, hormone secretion, except gonadotropins, undergoes a pronounced decrease which is thought to contribute to the progression of aging. The recent data indicate that gonadotropin excess may also by itself influence the aging process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relations between gonadotropins and steroid hormones with physical and mental abilities of older people. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a group of patients aged over 75 years, concentrations of FSH, LH, estradiol, testosterone, DHEAs and cortisol were measured. The mental ability was estimated by MMSE and CDT and the physical ability by TUG and SPPB tests. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The positive correlation between SPPB scores and FSH and the negative correlations of SPPB with LH/FSH ratio were observed in men. The correlation of TUG scores and estradiol levels was also noted in men. The positive correlation between CDT scores and FSH in women and the negative correlation between CDT and LH/FSH ratio in men were found. The correlation between the results of CDT and cortisol levels in men was also observed. Thus, we did not confirm the simple deleterious effect of gonadotropins on cognitive abilities. FSH and LH seem exert different (antagonistic?) effects on cognitive functions, but this hypothesis needs further studies.