: Adiponectin, a protein secreted by adipocytes, has been recently found to be also secreted by cardiomyocytes. Adiponectin possesses several physiological functions including modulation of glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. The interactions between adiponectin and metabolic parameters were found. Studies on aging humans revealed that enhanced adiponectin values are a distinctive feature of centenarians. Thus, this parameter may be considered as a prognostic factor of prolonged survival. However, it has also been demonstrated that high adiponectin levels may predict mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several mechanisms of adiponectin elevation, both in the process of aging and in pathomechanism of CVD, are discussed in this paper.