OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate: 1) The prevalence of human papillomavirus (types 6 and 11 carrying a low risk of neoplasia, and type 16 implicated as cause of cervical neoplasia and cancer) in normal pregnant women and pregnant renal transplant recipients. 2) The correlation between maternal HPV infection and HPV presence in the cord blood and the oral cavity of the neonate. Evaluation of a likely, additional route of HPV transmission to the fetus, apart from the infected birth canal during vaginal delivery. The correlation between the mode of delivery in HPV-infected patients and the presence of HPV in their offspring.
DESIGN: Thirty-nine pregnant patients were included in the study. The study group consisted of nine pregnant renal transplant recipients. The control group consisted of 30 patients with normal pregnancy. The DNA of HPV types 6, 11 and 16 was studied in the discharge from the cervical canal, the maternal venous blood, the cord blood and the buccal smear obtained from the neonates.
SETTING: A university teaching hospital delivering approximately 2000 women annually.
RESULTS: Human papillomavirus (HPV) was found in 10 (26%) of 39 subjects. HPV types 6 and 11 was found in 7 (18%) of 39 subjects while HPV type 16 was present in 5 (13%) of the subjects. The co-occurrence of HPV types 6, 11 and 16 was detected in 2 patients from the control group. Transmission of HPV was established in 70% of study patients and their offspring.
CONCLUSIONS: 1) The HPV was found with 26% pregnant women. 2) The occurrence of HPV infections with pregnant renal transplant recipients in comparison with normal pregnancy was on similar level. High percentage of HPV transmission from mother to neonate was obtained. 3) The cesarean section probably doesn't protect from HPV infection. 4) There's a suggestion, the HPV infection of fetus may occur in utero.