OBJECTIVES: Cytokine production and immune activation are associated with various pathological conditions including neurodegenerative disorders. One of them is multiple sclerosis (MS), known autoimmune disease. Inflammatory changes were also reported in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), neurodegenerative disorder, which pathophysiology remains still unclear. The aim of this research was to compare the group of MS subjects with NPH patients and controls and to evaluate the potential inflammatory substance of NPH in comparison with autoimmune inflamed MS.
METHODS: The levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, INF-γ, sCD40L and TNF-α were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in subjects with MS (n=15), NPH (n=18) and controls (n=11) by multiplex assay.
RESULTS: The increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21 and TNF-α in cerebrospinal fluid of NPH subjects in comparison with MS patients and controls were found. Regarding the MS patients, we have confirmed increased IL-33 levels in cerebrospinal fluid and periphery as well as the increase of IL-1β and IL-10 in cerebrospinal fluid and IL-4 and sCD40L in plasma.
CONCLUSION: The enlarged brain ventricles in NPH may repress and activate brain structures to the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-21 and TNF-α, reflecting the inflammatory basis in NPH affected brain. The elevation of the above mentioned cytokines in MS was confirmed.