OBJECTIVES: Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a treatable neurological syndrome developing in the elderly. It is characterized by balance impairment, urinary incontinence and dementia development caused by disorders in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. The diagnosis can be easily mistaken for other neurodegenerative diseases, which are often accompanied by inflammation and the production of cytokines. The aim of our study was to determine and compare selected CSF and plasma cytokines with respect to their informative value for laboratory diagnostics of NPH.
METHODS: The levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, INF-γ, sCD40L and TNF-α were measured in the CSF and plasma in age-matched subjects with NPH (n=20) and controls (n=20) by multiplex assay.
RESULTS: CSF IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly increased on the 1st day of lumbar drainage in NPH (p<0.01). No significant changes were observed in the plasma. The CSF cytokines were one to three orders of magnitude higher compared to the plasma.
CONCLUSION: CSF can better show the neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 may be helpful in NPH diagnostics.