OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to detect endocrine disruption potential of selected bisphenols and phthalates, compare in silico prediction with results from two in vitro methods and bring up-to-date information on development of EU legislation, available in vitro methods and biomechanisms involved in endocrine disruption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In silico approach based on the OECD QSAR Toolbox was used for prediction of estrogen receptor α binding. OECD TG 455 assay and a yeast-based YES/YAS assay was used to determine the interactions with human estrogen (ERα) and androgen receptors. RESULTS: In silico results predicted the screened phthalates as non binders and bisphenols as very strong binders of the ERα. In vitro results differed from in silico prediction in several cases but exhibited concordance mainly for strong binders of ERα. Most of the substances exhibited parallel activity (agonist-antagonist) on both estrogen and androgen receptors. Agonistic studies showed the effective concentration of 10% activity (EC10) from 5.0E-07 for strong agonists (e.g. BPC, BPTMC). Cytotoxicity was observed after 48 h exposure of S. cerevisiae to BPFL, BPG, BPM, BPTMC in concentrations starting at 3.6E-05 mol/l. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest multiple parallel interactions of tested compounds and emphasize the importance of determination of an appropriate battery of in vitro methods that will include more receptors and will be appropriate to target specific molecular mechanisms involved in endocrine disruption. Results in agonistic studies indicate agonistic potential and are supported by results of antagonistic studies with consideration of possible multiple interactions.