Evaluation of ibuprofen toxicity for zebrafish (Danio rerio) targeting on selected biomarkers of oxidative stress.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure of zebrafish to ibuprofen, using selected oxidative stress parameters as a target.
DESIGN: Toxicity tests were performed on Danio rerio according to OECD No. 203 and No. 215. In the growth test, fish were exposed to subletal concentrations of ibuprofen (0.0001, 0.05, 1, 8, and 25 mg.L-1) for 28 days. For the assessment of free radical defense in fish, the catalytic activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT), as well as the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured.
RESULTS: Ibuprofen did not affect the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase. A significant (p<0.01) increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase was found, which was proved dose-dependent (10.58 nmol NADPH per min per mg protein in the control and 20.53, 26.36, 26.89, and 45.87 nmol NADPH per min per mg protein in the ibuprofen concentrations of 0.5, 1, 8, and 25 mg.L-1. An increased (p<0.05) activity of glutathione S-transferase in the highest concentration was found compared to control. Malondialdehyde levels were found significantly (p<0.01) decreased from control in the concentrations of 0.0001 and 8 mg.L-1, but no dose-dependence was found.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that ibuprofen causes the increase in the activity of some antioxidative and biotransformation enzymes in zebrafish (GPx and GST). We also found a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation in the concentrations of 0.0001 and 8 mg.L-1 compared to control....