The effect of the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin on somatic indices and oxidative stress parameters in early stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the subchronic exposure of early stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to norfloxacin using morphometric data and oxidative stress parameters.
METHODS: A subchronic toxicity test was performed on fertilized embryos of common carp according to the OECD Guidelines No. 210. Embryos were exposed to norfloxacin concentrations of 0.0001 (environmental), 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mg.L(-1) for 34 days.
RESULTS: At the end of the test (day 34), significant (p<0.05) stimulation of development was observed in all experimental groups, in contrast to the control. Significantly greater (p<0.01) total body length was also observed in the group exposed to 10.0 mg.L(-1) of norfloxacin compared to the control. A significant increase in the activity of glutathione S-transferase in all carp exposed to norfloxacin concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg.L(-1) (p<0.01), and 5.0 mg.L(-1) (p<0.05) compared to control group was revealed. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was significantly lower (p<0.01) in experimental carp exposed to a norfloxacin concentration of 10.0 mg.L(-1). In experimental carp exposed to a norfloxacin concentration of 0.0001 mg.L(-1), a significant increase (p<0.05) in glutathione reductase activity was found. Significant (p<0.01) decreases in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the groups exposed to norfloxacin concentrations of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mg.L(-1) were revealed.
CONCLUSION: From the results, we can conclude that norfloxacin has a negative impact on selected biochemical processes related to the production of reactive oxygen species in early-life stages of common carp....