Reproductive Medicine, Chronobiology
and Human Ethology, ISSN 0172780X
Vol.24 No.1/2, Feb-Apr 2003
amalgam as one of the risk factors in autoimmune diseases
of cold stress on morphine-induced nitric oxide production
and µ-opiate receptor gene expression in Mytilus edulis pedal
Kirk Mantione, Raymond Hong, Richard Im, Jeong
Ho Nam, Maxime Simon, Patrick Cadet &
George B. Stefano
Research Institute, State University of New York, College
at Old Westbury, Old Westbury, NY 11568-0210,USA
and the Long Island Conservatory, Science Program, 1125 Willis
Ave, Albertson, NY 11507, USA.
November 18, 2002 Accepted: November 22, 2002
nitric oxide, morphine, cold stress, mu opiate receptor,
invertebrate neural tissues
Subjecting the marine bivalve Mytilus edulis to an immediate
temperature change has been shown to rapidly alter the animals'
ganglionic monoamine levels, as well as its ciliary activity.
Recently, we extended this observation to include the organism's
ganglionic mu opiate receptor and morphine levels. In the
past, we demonstrated that M. edulis ganglionic mu receptors
exposed to morphine was coupled to the immediate release nitric
oxide (NO). In this study, we measured morphine-induced NO
release in M. edulis subjected to acute cold stress.
NO release was monitored with an NO-selective microprobe.
Temporal changes in mu opiate receptor expression were also
examined over 24 hours.
In this study, we demonstrate that after 12h cold exposure
(4 °C from 24 °C), the estimated relative µ-opiate
receptor (MOR) gene expression in M. edulis pedal ganglia,
measured by real-time PCR, did not differ significantly from
the control group (1.23±0.25, p>0.05). However,
the measured M. edulis pedal ganglia MOR expression demonstrated
that ganglia significantly (0.77±0.05, p<0.001)
down regulated their mu opiate receptor mRNA expression after
24h exposure to the cold water. The mean value for control
animal (24 °C, n=14) morphine-stimulated NO release was
36.7 ± 9.8 nM. Morphine additions to cold-treated tissues
(4 °C, n=7) produced an average of 6.7 ± 4.9 nM
NO, which was a statistically significant difference between
25 °C and 4 °C animals (p=0.025).
The study further demonstrates that mu opiate receptor expression
is coupled to NO release.
Copyright © Neuroendocrinology Letters 2003
Society of Integrated Sciences
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