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NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY LETTERS
including Psychoneuroimmunology, Neuropsychopharmacology,
Reproductive Medicine, Chronobiology
and Human Ethology, ISSN 0172–780X

NEL Vol.24 No.1/2, Feb-Apr 2003

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Dental amalgam as one of the risk factors in autoimmune diseases

2003; 24:6872
pii: NEL241203A10
PMID: 12743536

[Read pdf 164kb]

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Effects of cold stress on morphine-induced nitric oxide production and -opiate receptor gene expression in Mytilus edulis pedal ganglia

Kirk Mantione, Raymond Hong, Richard Im, Jeong Ho Nam, Maxime Simon, Patrick Cadet & George B. Stefano

Neuroscience Research Institute, State University of New York, College at Old Westbury, Old Westbury, NY 11568-0210,USA
and the Long Island Conservatory, Science Program, 1125 Willis Ave, Albertson, NY 11507, USA.

Submitted: November 18, 2002 Accepted: November 22, 2002

Key words:
nitric oxide, morphine, cold stress, mu opiate receptor, invertebrate neural tissues

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Subjecting the marine bivalve Mytilus edulis to an immediate temperature change has been shown to rapidly alter the animals' ganglionic monoamine levels, as well as its ciliary activity. Recently, we extended this observation to include the organism's ganglionic mu opiate receptor and morphine levels. In the past, we demonstrated that M. edulis ganglionic mu receptors exposed to morphine was coupled to the immediate release nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we measured morphine-induced NO release in M. edulis subjected to acute cold stress.

METHODS: NO release was monitored with an NO-selective microprobe. Temporal changes in mu opiate receptor expression were also examined over 24 hours.

RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that after 12h cold exposure (4 °C from 24 °C), the estimated relative µ-opiate receptor (MOR) gene expression in M. edulis pedal ganglia, measured by real-time PCR, did not differ significantly from the control group (1.23±0.25, p>0.05). However, the measured M. edulis pedal ganglia MOR expression demonstrated that ganglia significantly (0.77±0.05, p<0.001) down regulated their mu opiate receptor mRNA expression after 24h exposure to the cold water. The mean value for control animal (24 °C, n=14) morphine-stimulated NO release was 36.7 ± 9.8 nM. Morphine additions to cold-treated tissues (4 °C, n=7) produced an average of 6.7 ± 4.9 nM NO, which was a statistically significant difference between 25 °C and 4 °C animals (p=0.025).

CONCLUSION: The study further demonstrates that mu opiate receptor expression is coupled to NO release.

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