January 7, 2003

NEL HOME
AIM & SCOPE
BOARD OF EDITORS
INSTRUCTIONS for Authors
CONTENTS,  Special Issue, VOL.23 Dec 2002
VOL.22, 2001
VOL.21, 2000
VOL.20, 1999
VOL.19, 1998
VOL.18, 1997
CONTACT
SUBSCRIBE order
bar_vert down.gif (6891 bytes)

NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY LETTERS
including Psychoneuroimmunology, Neuro
psychopharmacology,
Reproductive Medicine, Chronobiology
and Human Ethology
ISSN 0172–780X


CONTENTS SPECIAL ISSUE
HUMAN ETHOLOGY & EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY
Vol. 23, December 2002

Marriage: An Evolutionary Perspective

Marriage: An Evolutionary Perspective       [REFERENCES]

Glenn E. Weisfeld & Carol C. Weisfeld

Submitted: September 3, 2002
Accepted: September 4, 2002

Key words:
pair bonding, mate choice, dominance, wealth, divorce, marriage, infidelity, industrialization, extended family, fecundity

REVIEW ARTICLE
2002; 23(suppl 4) :47–54
pii: NEL231002R05
PMID: 12496735

Order pdf

ABSTRACT

Marriage is universal, and pair bonding is found in other species too with highly dependent young. So marriage functions as a reproductive social arrangement that traditionally involved the extended family. The sexes are not identical in their biological contributions to children’s survival, so they seek somewhat different attributes in a mate. Men seek a young, attractive, sexually faithful bride. Women seek a man who is older, taller, and (as in many other species) socially dominant. Both sexes prefer a kind, healthy, attractive, similar mate who is emotionally attached to them. A spouse who fails to maintain sufficiently high mate value is vulnerable to divorce. Infertility and sexual dissatisfaction predict divorce, as does death of a child, but the more children, the stabler the marriage. Cross-cultural data suggest that cruel or subdominant men (e.g., poor providers) and unfaithful women are prone to divorce. Marriages in which the wife dominates the husband in economic contributions, nonverbal behavior, and decision making tend to be less satisfying. In societies in which wives are economically independent of husbands, divorce rates are high. As women’s economic power has risen with industrialization, divorce rates have climbed. Economic and fitness considerations also help explain cultural differences in polygyny, age at marriage, arranged marriage, concern with the bride’s sexual chastity, and marriage ceremonies. Other factors also affect marital dynamics, such as state subsidies to families, the sex ratio, and influence of the couple’s parents.

REFERENCES

1 Quale GR. A history of marriage systems. New York: Greenwood; 1988.

2 Higham E. Variations in adolescent psychohormonal development. In: Adelson J, editor. Handbook of adolescent psychology. New York: Wiley; 1980.

3 Richards MH, Larson R. Pubertal development and the daily subjective states of young adolescents. J Research on Adolescence 1993; 3:145–169.

4 Baker RR, & Bellis MA. Human sperm competition: copulation, masturbation and infidelity. London: Chapman & Hall; 1995.

5 Amato PR. Children’s adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. J Marriage & Family 1993; 55:23–38.

6 Daly M, Wilson M. Homicide. Hawthorne (N.Y.): Aldine de Gruyter; 1988.

7 Fleming AS. Hormonal and experiential correlates of maternal responsiveness. In: Krasnegor NA, Bridges, RS, editors. Mammalian parenting: biochemical, neurobiological, and behavioral determinants. New York: Oxford University Press; 1990.

8 Goldberg S, Blumberg SL, & Kriger A. Menarche and interest in infants: biological and social influences. Child Development 1982; 53:1544–1550.

9 Money J, Ehrhardt AA. Man and woman, boy and girl. Baltimore (Md.): Johns Hopkins University Press; 1972.

10 Warren MP, Shortle B. Endocrine correlates of human parenting: A clinical perspective. In: Krasnegor NA, Bridges RS, editors. Mammalian parenting: biochemical, neurobiological, and behavioral determinants. New York: Oxford University Press; 1990.

11 Storey AE, Walsh CJ, Qutinton RL, Wynne-Edwards KE. Hormonal correlates of paternal responsiveness in new and expectant fathers. Evolution & Human Behavior 2000; 21:79–95.

12 Weisfeld CC, Weisfeld GE, Lucas TW Pardo-Rincon Y, Parkhill MR. What’s important – marital satisfaction or reproductive success? Paper presented at the congress of the International Society for Human Ethology, Montréal; August 2002.

13 Brislin, R. Understanding culture’s influence on behavior. New York: Harcourt; 2000.

14 Brehm SS, Miller RS, Perlman D, Campbell SM. Intimate relationships (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill; 2002.

15 Hrdy SB. Mother nature: a history of mothers, infants, and natural selection. New York: Pantheon; 1999.

16 Schlegel A. The origin of the family. Paper presented at the convention of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, New Brunswick (N.J.); June 2002.

17 Zeller AC. A role for children in hominid evolution. Man 1987; 22:528–557.

18 Miller G. The mating mind. London: Vintage; 2001.

19 Mealey L. Sex differences: developmental and evolutionary strategies. New York: Academic Press; 2000.

20 Weisfeld GE, Russell RJH, Weisfeld CC, Wells PA (1992). Correlates of satisfaction in British marriages. Ethology & Sociobiology 1992; 13:125–145.

21 Andersson M. Sexual selection. Princeton (N.J.): Princeton University Press; 1996.

22 Rushton JP. Genetic similarity, mate choice, and fecundity in humans. Ethology & Sociobiology 1988; 9:329–333.

23 van den Berghe PL. Human family systems: an evolutionary view. New York: Elsevier; 1979

24 Coon CS. The hunting peoples. Boston: Little, Brown; 1971.

25 Jacob S, McClintock MK, Zelano B, Ober C. Paternally inhibited HLA alleles are associated with women’s choice of male odor. Nature Genetics 2002; 30:175–179.

26 Czilli T, Weisfeld GE, & Lichtman C. Recognition of parents, children, and siblings by olfaction. Paper presented at the congress of the International Society for Human Ethology, Montréal; 2002.

27 Buss DM. Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral & Brain Sciences 1989; 12:1–49.

28 Weisfeld GE. Evolutionary principles of human adolescence. New York: Basic Books; 1999.

29 Betzig, L. Causes of conjugal dissolution: a cross-cultural study. Current Anthropology 1989; 30:654–676.

30 Corrales RG. Power and satisfaction in early marriage. In: Cromwell RE, Olson DM, editors. Power in families. New York: Wiley; 1975.

31 Gray-Little B, Burks N. Power and satisfaction in marriage: a review and critique. Psychological Bulletin 1983; 93:513–538.

32 Kotlar SL. Middle-class marital role perceptions and marital adjustment. Sociology & Social Research 1965; 49:283–294.

33 Shen J, Wendorf C, Lucas T, Parkhill M. Correlates of satisfaction in Chinese marriages. Poster presented at the congress of the International Society for Human Ethology, Montréal; August 2002

34 Noller P. Nonverbal communication and marital interaction. Oxford: Pergamon Press; 1984.

35 Schell NJ, Weisfeld CC. Marital power dynamics: a Darwinian perspective. In: van der Dennen JMG, Smillie D, Wilson DR, editors. The Darwinian heritage and sociobiology. Westport (Conn.): Praeger; 1999.

36 Goode WJ. World changes in divorce patterns. New Haven (Conn.): Yale University Press; 1993.

37 Thornhill R, Thornhill N. Human rape: an evolutionary analysis. Ethology & Sociobiology 1983; 4:63–99.

38 Littlefield CH, Silverman I. Marital dissatisfaction following the death of a child: The influence of genetic factors at cause in the death. J Marriage & Family 1991; 53:799–804.

39 Friedl E. Women and men: an anthropologist’s view. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1975.

40 Stephens WN. The family in cross-cultural perspective. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1963.

41 Brown NM, Amatea ES. Love and intimate relationships: journeys of the heart. New York: Brunner/Mazel; 2000.

42 Fisher H. The anatomy of love: the mysteries of mating, marriage, and why we stray. New York: Fawcett Columbine; 1992.

43 Tennov D. Love and limerence: the experience of being in love (2nd ed.). Lanham (Md.): Scarborough House; 1999.

44 Buckle L, Gallup GG, Rodd ZA. Marriage as a reproductive contract: patterns of marriage, divorce, and remarriage. Ethology & Sociobiology 1996; 17:363–377.

45 Gottman JM, Levenson RW. The timing of divorce: Predicitng when a couple will divorce over a 14-year period. J Marriage & Family 2000; 62:737–745.

46 Hiedermann B, Rand OO, Source AM. Economic independence, economic status, and empty nest in midlife marital disruption. J Marriage & Family 1998; 60:219–231.

47 Daly M., Wilson M. Sex, evolution, and behavior (2nd ed.) Belmont (Calif.): Wadsworth; 1983.

48 Murdock GP. Ethnographic atlas. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press; 1967.

49 Freedman DG. A biological view of man’s social behavior. In: Etkin W, editor. Social behavior from fish to man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1967.

50 Popenoe D. American family decline, 1960–1990: a review and appraisal. J Marriage & Family 1993; 55:527–555.

51 Perkins HW, Spates JL. Mirror images? Three analyses of values in England and the United States. International J Comparative Sociology 1986; 27:31–51.

52 Waynforth S, Waynforth D. Minding the baby and demographic transition. Paper presented at the convention of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, New Brunswick (N.J.); June 2002.

53 Argyle M., Henderson, M. The anatomy of relationships. Harmondsworth (England): Penguin; 1985.

54 Stattin H, Klackenberg G. Discordant family relations in intact families: developmental tendencies over 18 years. J Marriage & Family 1992; 54:940–956.

55 Pimentel EE. How do I love thee? marital relations in urban China. J Marriage & Family 2000; 62:32–47.

56 Wendorf CA, Imamoglu EO, Shen J, Weisfeld GE, Lucas TW. Marriage within the extended family in four cultures. Paper presented at the congress of the International Society for Human Ethology, Montréal; August 2002.

57 Cready DM, Fosset MA, Kiecolt KJ. Mate availability and African American family structure in the U.S. metropolitan South, 1960–1990. J Marriage & Family 1997; 59:192–203.

58 Townsend JM. Mate selection criteria: a pilot study. Ethology & Sociobiology 1989; 10:241–253.

59 Wiederman MW, Allgeier ER. Gender differences in mate selection criteria: Sociobiological or socioeconomic explanation? Ethology & Sociobiology 1992; 13:115–124.

60 Wilson WJ. The truly disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1987.

61 Argyle M. The psychology of happiness (2nd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis; 2001.

62 Weisfeld GE, Aytch DM. Biological factors in family violence. Michigan Family Review 1996; 2:25–39.

63 Chilman CS. Some psychological aspects of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behaviors in a changing American society. In: Lancaster J & Hamburg BA, editors. School-age pregnancy and parenthood: biosocial perspectives. New York: Aldine de Gruyter; 1986.

64 Mackey W C. The American father: biocultural and developmental aspects. New York: Plenum; 1996.

65 Weisfeld GE, Weisfeld CC, Imamoglu EO, Wendorf CA. Cultural differences in the impact of number of children on marital satisfaction. Paper presented at the convention of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, London; June 2001.

66 McGue M, Lykken DT. Genetic influence on the risk of divorce. Psychological Science 1992, 3:368–373.

67 Richer J. The rise of psychosocial problems, attachment and mismatch. Paper presented at the congress of the International Society for Human Ethology, Montréal; August 2002.

 

ORDER PDF
"Marriage: An Evolutionary Perspective"

1. Secure online payment, PDF USD 35.00:  
Buy PDF Now
      Check Out
Goods and services provided by Neuroendocrinology Letters
Sold by 2CheckOut.com Inc. (Ohio, USA).

2. Send also an email to: publisher@nel.edu with following information:
Vol.23 Special Issue (suppl.4). ARTICLE TITLE:
"Marriage: An Evolutionary Perspective
" -- pdf article order.
Delivery method: _____ (either email or fax or regular airmail). Thank you.

ORDER THIS ISSUE
"Human Ethology and Evolutionary Psychology"

1. Payment can be made by check or wire transfer.
Please contact publisher@nel.edu for details.

2. Online CreditCard payment through Secure Server.
Please follow the links below:
Buy Now    Check Out
Goods and services provided by Neuroendocrinology Letters
Sold by 2CheckOut.com Inc. (Ohio, USA).

NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY LETTERS
including Psychoneuroimmunology, Neuro
psychopharmacology,
Reproductive Medicine, Chronobiology
and Human Ethology
ISSN 0172–780X


A peer-reviewed transdisciplinary Journal covering Neuroendocrinology, Psychoneuroimmunology, Neuropsychopharmacology, Reproductive Medicine, Chronobiology and Human Ethology for RAPID publication of Original Papers, Review Articles, State-of-the-Art, Clinical Reports, Meta-Analyses and other contributions from all the fields covered by Neuroendocrinology Letters. E-mail: info@nel.edu

Copyright © Neuroendocrinology Letters 2001
All rights reserved. No part may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or ortherwise, without prior written permission from the Editor-in-Chief: editor@nel.edu
INDEXED IN:
  Web of Science, Science Citation Index, (on the Internet), ISI, PA, USA
  Research Alert (a current awareness service), ISI, PA, USA
  Neurosciences Citation Index (on compact disk), ISI, PA, USA
  MEDLINE / Index Medicus

  Excerpta Medica
  Embase
  Chemical Abstracts
  INIST-CNRS
  OMNI

View current statistics