of autism spectrum children with thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl
disulfide: A pilot study
Lonsdale 1, Raymond J. Shamberger 2 & Tapan
Preventive Medicine Group, Westlake OH, USA.
2. Director, King James Medical Laboratory, Inc., 24700 Center
Ridge Rd. Westlake, OH 44145, USA.
3. Vitamin Diagnostics, Inc, Rt 35 & Industrial Drive,
Cliffwood Bch, NJ 07735, USA.
Autism; thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide; urinary
arsenic; sulfur metabolism
Febrary 17, 2002
Accepted: May 24, 2002
In a Pilot Study, the clinical and biochemical effects of
thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD) on autistic spectrum
children were investigated.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ten children were studied. Diagnosis
was confirmed through the use of form E2, a computer assessed
symptom score. For practical reasons, TTFD was administered
twice daily for two months in the form of rectal suppositories,
each containing 50 mg of TTFD. Symptomatic responses were
determined through the use of the computer assessed Autism
Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) forms *. The erythrocyte
transketolase (TKA) and thiamine pyrophosphate effect (TPPE),
were measured at outset and on completion of the study to
document intracellular thiamine deficiency. Urines from patients
were examined at outset, after 30 days and after 60 days of
treatment and the concentrations of SH-reactive metals, total
protein, sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and thiocyanate were
determined. The concentrations of metals in hair were also
At the beginning of the study thiamine deficiency was observed
in 3 out of the 10 patients. Out of 10 patients, 6 had initial
urine samples containing arsenic in greater concentration
than healthy controls. Traces of mercury were seen in urines
from all of these autistic children. Following administration
of TTFD an increase in cadmium was seen in 2 children and
in lead in one child. Nickel was increased in the urine of
one patient during treatment. Sulfur metabolites in urine
did not differ from those measured in healthy children.
CONCLUSIONS: Thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide
appears to have a beneficial clinical effect on some autistic
children, since 8 of the 10 children improved clinically.
We obtained evidence of an association of this increasingly
occurring disease with presence of urinary SH-reactive metals,
arsenic in particular.