OBJECTIVE: The dysregulation of adiponectin and leptin is found in insulin resistance. There is evidence that both cytokines and insulin might contribute to the placental development and the fetal growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of maternal plasma cytokine and insulin concentrations with the placental dimension in the first trimester of pregnancy.
METHODS: 34 women with singleton pregnancy, between 11th and 14th weeks, were included to the study. Plasma levels of adiponectin, leptin, insulin and glucose were quantified with ultrasound measurements of the placenta. HOMA-IR were calculated to assess the insulin sensitivity.
RESULTS: Mean concentrations of adiponectin, leptin and insulin were 18,39±13.99 µg/ml; 6.99±5.67 ng/ml and 43.98±23.89 pmol/l respectively. The placenta thickness was positively associated with the maternal adiponectin plasma concentration (r=0.36; p=0.037). There were no associations between placental measurements and leptin, fasting insulin, fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. There was not significant correlation between placental measurements and the fetal Crown Rump Length (CRL).
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study imply that maternal adiponectin plasma concentration may have a role in placental growth.