: Sleep disorders are frequent and disturbing, mostly chronic conditions. Despite the fact practice of sleep medicine is a young field. Sleep disorders were reduced to insomnia and even insomnia was not well studied until 1960ies. This article maps amazing development of sleep disorders treatment from the beginning till current date. The text covers both scientific and clinical perspectives on most frequent sleep related disorders including insomnias, hypersomnias, parasomnias, sleep related movement and breathing disorders, restless legs syndrome and circadian rhythm sleep disorders.