: Gastric cancer accounts 8% of the total cancer cases leading to 10% of total cancer deaths worldwide. The indoleamine N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, better known as melatonin, is the principal hormone produced by the pineal gland. Recently, it has been well documented some anti-cancer roles of melatonin in some malignancies as breast and colon cancer; as well as some its protective roles in the GI tract that have been known as free radical scavenger, antimitogenic and apoptotic properties. According to the anti-cancer effects of melatonin, wide distribution of this neurohormone in GI tract and some proposed physiologic and pharmacologic roles for this neurohormone and following our previous study which has shown expression of MT2 receptor in gastric adenocarcinoma, this study initially scheduled to determine the expression of melatonin receptor MT1 in tissue samples of adenocarcinoma cancer patients. A total of 10 gastric adenocarcinoma patients and 10 normal individuals were examined for MT1 gene expression by real-time PCR. Additionally, for screening of different alleles of MT1 in our samples, the SSCP-PCR procedure was developed. Our results have shown interestingly high expression for MT1 receptor in cancer and marginal cancer groups comparing with normal group. Our findings also have shown that a remarkable association between MT1 receptor mRNA levels and grade in individuals over age 50. PCR-SSCP analysis results showed a variation between individuals which may be effective on their gene expression patterns. According to our knowledge, for the first time this study evaluated the expression of MT1 receptor gene in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues which consistent with our previous study but with some difference in comparisons between kind of tissue expression and difference in polymorphisms. Moreover, these results show the defending role of melatonin in the GI system.