Reproductive Medicine, Chronobiology
and Human Ethology, ISSN 0172780X
Vol.24 Nos.3/4, Jun-Aug 2003
role of the estrogen in neuroprotection: Implications for neurodegenerative
in this issue:
1. Preface - Guest Editorial by Stefano
2. Stefano et al | 3.
Zhu et al | 4. Cho et
al - Review (below)
role of the estrogen in neuroprotection: Implications for
J. Cho, Francesco A. Iannucci, Melissa Fraile, Joseph Franco,
Tracy N. Alesius & George B. Stefano
Neuroscience Research Institute, State University of New York
College at Old Westbury, Old Westbury, New York, USA;
July 22, 2003
Accepted: July 24, 2003
17-b-estradiol, estrogen cell
surface receptors, nitric oxide, estrogen receptors, microglia,
Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, free radicals, schizophrenia
In earlier studies, we demonstrate that 17-b
-estradiol and an estrogen cell surface receptor can be found
on various human cells, i.e., vascular endothelial, monocytes,
and granulocytes, where they are coupled to nitric oxide release.
We further demonstrated this phenomenon in the marine mussel
Mytilus edulis ganglionic tissues. In the present report we
sought to determine if estrogen can be found in M. edulis
& METHODS: We determined the presence of 17-b
-estradiol via high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)
and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in the animals gonads. This substance
was further identified via nanoelectro-spray ionization quadrupole
time of flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS).
17-b -estradiol was identified
and quantified in Mytilus gonads. Interestingly, we also determined
that estradiol isoforms also were present in this tissue.
These data demonstrate that 17-b-estradiol
and an estradiol isoform is present in M. edulis gonadal tissues,
suggesting that they have functions related to reproduction.
This further suggests that estrogens association with
reproductive activities has a long evolutionary history and
that this association began in invertebrates.
Copyright © Neuroendocrinology Letters 2003
Society of Integrated Sciences
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